When a women's breast must be surgically removed because of cancer, this procedure is known as a mastectomy. Since there are several types of mastectomy, a doctor must determine which is most appropriate based on the location and severity of the cancer. For instance, a total mastectomy involves removal of the breast tissue and nipple, while a lumpectomy targets the tumor and the tissue around it. There are also times when a mastectomy is performed to make the patient more comfortable, rather than as an attempt to save the woman's life. In this case, the surgery is sometimes referred to as a 'toilet' mastectomy.