Scientist study things from outer space just like the sun, the moon, the planets, the Meteors, Comets and Asteroids. They also put Satellites outer space and also they are very useful to us they also tell what the weather is going to be.
1 Additional Answer
Based off the mission for the astronauts they sometimes will put up a new camera to travel through space. They will sometimes take pictures of different objects they see when they are out there.