The correlation between two variables is the degree to which there is a 'linear relationship' between them. Correlation is usually expressed as a 'coefficient' which measures the strength of that linear relationship between the variables. The two main methods of calculating correlations are Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient and Pearson's or the Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient.

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what does correlation mean

cor·re·la·tion

[kawr-uh-ley-shuhn, kor-]

NOUN

1.

mutual relation of two or more things, parts, etc.: Studies find a positive correlation between severity of illness and nutritional status of the patients.

2.

the act of correlating or state of being correlated.

3.

Statistics. the degree to which two or more attributes or measurements on the same group of elements show a tendency to vary together.

4.

Physiology the interdependence or reciprocal relations of organs or functions.

5.

Geology the demonstrable equivalence, in age or lithology, of two or more stratigraphic units, as formations or members of such.

Source:
Dictionary.com

Correlation is a term that is used in science to show how two different variables are related. Correlation is noted to be a very important statistic. You can find more information here: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statcorr.php

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In statistics, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (sometimes referred to as the PPMCC or PCC or Pearson's r) is a measure of the linear correlation (dependence) between two variables...