What is seed germination?


After planting of a seed, it remains dormant in the soil until there are appropriate conditions for it to grow. Germination only starts if there is the proper temperature, oxygen and water, and some seeds also require proper light. Some do better in full light, while others do well in darkness. Typically, the process by which a plant grows from a seed is called germination.

When a seed gets the right conditions, water and oxygen are absorbed through the seed coat. The uptake of water is referred to as imbibition. The embryo's cells become enlarged, and the food supplies and enzymes become hydrated. The metabolic activities in the seed increase in order to produce energy necessary for growth. Then the seed coat breaks open, and the first part to emerge is the radicle, or root, followed by the plumule, which contains the leaves and the stem. Additionally, there are some conditions that may prevent the seed from germinating, including overwatering, planting the seeds too deep in the soil and planting the seeds in dry conditions. Some seeds are so dry that water can not get through the coat. Soaking the seeds helps to soften the coat to allow germination of the seed.

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