According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, self-oriented means to be "overly concerned with one's own desires, needs or interests." A self-oriented person plans activities to maximize personal benefit.
Depending upon the circumstance, every person is self-oriented to some degree. A productive worker in a self-oriented mode keeps focusing only on the task at hand until the job is done to earn a paycheck. If the worker loses focus and becomes unproductive, the job may be gone and therefore, so will the money.
In contrast, an other-oriented person plans activities to maximize benefit for others before any personal benefit. An other-oriented person anonymously donates money to a charity. An other-oriented parent with limited funds chooses to spend money on a daughter's new swing-set instead of a grown-up night out.