Topology is the study of physical space, but it is not as concerned with exact angles and dimensions as similar studies, such as geometry. Topology focuses on the properties of surfaces that are unaffected by distortions, such as relative position, order and contiguity.
Topology is a version of geometry and includes the study of all types of spaces. When using topology, any changes that are continuous and can be undone are accepted. For example, a square can be a circle or a triangle, because the solution is to pull on the parts of the shape to transform it to the desired outcome. These processes are called continuous since the start points are close to the end points.