Its first known appearance was in the early 20th century. A man named Herman Minkowski proposed the idea while stuying euclid's postulates.
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Who_invented_taxicab_geo...

Geometry was thoroughly organized in about 300 BC, when the Greek mathematician
http://www.chacha.com/question/whodiscoveredori...

It seems that in the 1820s or thereabout, Gauss, Janos Bolyai, and Lobachevski all independently explored what would happen to Euclidean geometry if the parallel postulate were modified
http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=200709...

Although Euclid became famous through his mathematical works, details on his life remain elusive. He lived after Plato (428348 BC) and before Archimedes of Syracuse (287212 BC)
http://www.ehow.com/about_5382698_fathergeometry....
