According to WebMD, fluid retention in the abdomen is a common early symptom of cirrhosis of the liver, a condition in which healthy liver tissue is replaced with scar tissue over time. Liver damage that leads to scarring is common in alcoholics, obese individuals and individuals with hepatitis C. Scarring of the liver slows down liver production and effects the overall functioning of the liver.
According to the Mayo Clinic, fluid retention in the stomach is a common premenstrual symptom in females. The exact link between menstruation and fluid retention is unknown, but it is believed to be linked to hormonal fluctuations. Fluid retention prior to the menstrual cycle can be minimized by lowering salt intake and caffeine, as well as exercising daily.
Medline Plus explains that fluid retention and swelling of the abdomen is a symptom of nephrotic syndrome, a condition caused by several disorders that cause kidney damage. Individuals with diabetes, genetic disorders, immune function disorders and infections including strep throat are at risk for nephrotic syndrome. Additional symptoms include swelling of the face and feet, foamy urine, weight gain and low appetite. Nephrotic syndrome is treated by treating the specific condition that is causing the symptoms and through the use of low-protein diets, blood-thinning medications and vitamin supplements.