Acetone can be made using a wide variety of methods, although as of 2015, approximately 90 percent of acetone produced in the United States is made through the hydrolysis of cumene hydroperoxide. Earlier methods of acetone production included carbohydrate fermentation of molasses or corn and thermal decomposition of calcium acetate.
Cumene peroxidation involves the splitting of cumene hydroperoxide in the presence of sulphuric acid, which results in acetone and phenol. Under normal circumstances, this produces approximately 0.62 tons of acetone for every 1 ton of phenol. This process became more popular in the 1960s due to the increased supply of propylene.
Acetone, also known as dimethylketone, is a colorless liquid with a somewhat sweet smell. It is one of the most used chemical solvents in the world. Although it is extremely flammable, acetone has a very low toxicity and is naturally produced by the body in small amounts.
According to Dow Chemicals, approximately 70 percent of the acetone produced in the world is used to manufacture other chemicals, and about 12 percent is used in its pure form as a solvent. Approximately 6 percent of acetone is used to manufacture pharmaceuticals. Some of the other chemicals produced with acetone include adhesives, general purpose cements, paint thinner, nail polish remover and other cosmetic products.Learn More
The formula for calculating total water potential is matric or capillary potential + solute or osmotic potential + pressure potential or turgor pressure + gravitational potential. Water potential is a physical property that predicts the direction of water's flow, based on conditions such as pressure and solute concentration. It is typically represented in formulas by the Greek letter "psi."Full Answer >
Methane is a simple hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH4. The molecule is structured as a single atom of carbon surrounded by four atoms of hydrogen. The hydrogen atoms radiate out from the center of the molecule.Full Answer >
Delta G, or Gibbs free energy, is calculated by the equation ?G = ?H - T?S. ?G describes the change in free energy and is the difference between the change in enthalpy (?H) and the product of temperature and change in entropy (T?S). It is also worth noting that if ?G is positive, then the reaction is non-spontaneous, but if ?G is negative, then it is spontaneous.Full Answer >
To calculate the mass number of a specific element, find the number of protons and the number of neutrons that element has. Then, add them together. A periodic table of elements is needed to complete this task.Full Answer >