Rutherford's alpha scattering experiment is used to demonstrate the structure of atoms. Beams of alpha particles, nuclei of helium atoms, are used to irradiate a gold foil. Rutherford observed a few alpha particles going straight through, a few small deflections, a few large deflections and a few particles scattered back, which indicates that an atom has an intensely positively charged nucleus at its center.Know More
The alpha particles are produced by radioactive nuclides and are made to hit a gold foil a few atoms deep at a fixed angle in a vacuum. A zinc-sulfide-coated microscope lens attached to a turntable detects the deflected alpha particles at various angles. The lens at zero angle detects a higher number of scintillations per minute, while it detects lower rates at larger angles.
The results of Rutherford's experiments were mathematically evaluated, and the conclusion is that the particles that went straight through indicate the presence of an empty space in an atom. Particles that were less deflected were far away from the nucleus, and those that were more deflected were nearer to the nucleus. The particles that hit the positively charged nucleus were scattered back. Rutherford's new atomic model was accepted over the plum pudding model.Learn more about Particle Physics
A Bunsen burner is used in a laboratory to heat substances during an experiment. A Bunsen burner is a small gas burner that uses an adjustable flame. The flame is adjusted by increasing or decreasing the amount of gas and air that enters the vertical metal tube.Full Answer >
There are two types of sound waves: transverse and longitudinal. Each wave has its own shape and specific materials that they can conduct through.Full Answer >
The ionosphere is located between 46 and 621 miles above the Earth's surface and is composed of plasma, a state of matter that is a combination of free electrons and ionized atoms. The ionosphere contains the thermosphere and portions of the exosphere and the mesosphere.Full Answer >
The neutron is a subatomic particle found in the nucleus of the atom and has no charge. The number of neutrons in the nucleus is different for different elements. In some cases, the number of neutrons can vary within atoms of the same element.Full Answer >