Rutherford's alpha scattering experiment is used to demonstrate the structure of atoms. Beams of alpha particles, nuclei of helium atoms, are used to irradiate a gold foil. Rutherford observed a few alpha particles going straight through, a few small deflections, a few large deflections and a few particles scattered back, which indicates that an atom has an intensely positively charged nucleus at its center.Know More
The alpha particles are produced by radioactive nuclides and are made to hit a gold foil a few atoms deep at a fixed angle in a vacuum. A zinc-sulfide-coated microscope lens attached to a turntable detects the deflected alpha particles at various angles. The lens at zero angle detects a higher number of scintillations per minute, while it detects lower rates at larger angles.
The results of Rutherford's experiments were mathematically evaluated, and the conclusion is that the particles that went straight through indicate the presence of an empty space in an atom. Particles that were less deflected were far away from the nucleus, and those that were more deflected were nearer to the nucleus. The particles that hit the positively charged nucleus were scattered back. Rutherford's new atomic model was accepted over the plum pudding model.Learn more about Particle Physics
In an experiment, a control is used to establish a baseline to compare the results of the main experiment to. Having a control group rules out any environmental variables, such as temperature and humidity, from affecting the conclusion of the experiment.Full Answer >
A nuclear chain reaction is a series of fission reactions wherein the products become the driving forces for further chain reactions. This type of reaction generates constructive forces in the form of usable energy and destructive forces in the form of an explosion.Full Answer >
Gene cloning occurs when a specific gene from a strand of DNA has been extracted and copied from an organism. Nearly any tissue source can be used for cloning, as long as there is not widespread degradation. DNA can also be extracted from RNA using a process called reverse transcription.Full Answer >
An electron jump from an outermost energy level to the innermost or ground level would emit the highest frequency photon. A greater the drop in energy levels results in a higher frequency of the emitted photon.Full Answer >