One common analogy for the mitochondria (singular mitochondrion) is a powerhouse, as mitochondria create energy for the cell. Mitochondria are sometimes called the furnace of the cell as well. Like a powerhouse or furnace, mitochondria take in basic fuel stuff and generate energy from it: a furnace generates heat energy, and a powerhouse generates electricity, whereas mitochondria generate ATP.Know More
ATP is a chemical that is found throughout all the domains of life, from dandelions to amoebas to tuna fish, mushrooms and people. Food is made (as in plants) or eaten (as in animals) and ultimately broken down into ATP to create chemical energy for being alive. The process of creating ATP from food is called the citric acid cycle.
Mitochondria take in nutrients floating in the cytoplasm and break them down within their inner membranes using enzymes specialized for the task. Among the chemicals involved is the familiar citric acid, found in fruits such as oranges and lemons, but here involved in the splitting of molecules for energy generation. Once the ATP is made, it is removed from the relatively impermeable inner membrane by a chemical called ATP translocase.
There are multiple mitochondria within a single cell, and all of them work to generate the vital ATP. Cells that are more active contain more ATP, carrying their powerhouses within them for swift and efficient production of the energy they need.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
Chemiosmosis in mitochondria is defined as protons being pushed from the inner compartment to the outer compartment through a system of special channels. This creates a proton gradient, in which the protons are diffused using ATP synthase. Chemiosmosis is also known as electron transport phosphorylation and occurs in both mitochondria and chloroplasts.Full Answer >
Mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is found in the mitochondria of a eukaryotic cell; it is composed of 37 genes that are necessary for the mitochondria's function. Nuclear DNA, on the other hand, is found in the nucleus of a cell and is composed of 46 chromosomes that contain hereditary genetic information.Full Answer >
Palisade cells are found in the mesophyll of a leaf and their main function is the absorption of light so that photosynthesis can take place. The palisade mesophyll consists of chloroplasts with chlorophyll that absorb the light energy.Full Answer >
A cell utilizes mRNA during transcription and translation. These two processes allow the body to translate DNA into RNA in order to control protein expression and gene expression.Full Answer >