The Hudson Bay Lowlands is the northernmost ecozone in Ontario, according to the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Parks Canada states that the Arctic Lowlands is a region located in the southwestern Arctic Archipelago, and is identifiable by its barren islands and vast plains. Both occupy the central Canadian Arctic, and have a cold and dry climate.
The Hudson Bay Lowlands makes up nearly 25 percent of Ontario, and contains 20 percent of Ontario's forests. It also contains Ontario's largest protected area, Polar Bear Provincial Park, which is found on the coast to the north. It is the only Ontario ecozone affected by saltwater tides. The forest in the Hudson Bay Lowlands is home to polar bear, arctic fox, arctic hare, moose and woodland caribou. Millions of migratory birds build nests in this region every summer.
The Arctic Lowlands encompasses a wide range of geographical features, from low-lying plains to massive cliffs. Some areas are covered in limestone, sand and gravel, while others are blackened by loose chunks of coal. The area has very sparse vegetation, and there are extensive stretches of land that are completely devoid of life. Although there is a small human population, the freezing temperatures make life difficult.