The oxidation of carbohydrates and fats in an organism creates several chemical reactions that release enough energy to turn one molecule of ADP into approximately 150 molecules of ATP by adding phosphate groups to the molecule. ATP is adenosine triphosphate and is the energy-bearing molecule found in living cells.
ADP is adenosine diphosphate, used in metabolism and important for moving energy through living cells. ADP is reformed when foods are broken down by the body. The energy in ATP is released or used as a source of power for the cells. ADP is formed when the ATP is decomposed by an interaction with water, referred to as hydrolysis. In order to restore the ATP molecule from the ADP molecule, oxidation must occur, creating a cycle of energy balance.Learn More
RNA, or ribonucleic acid, has ribose as its sugar. Ribose has five carbon atoms and is called a pentose sugar. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, also contains a pentose sugar, deoxyribose, but its sugar has one less carbon atom than ribose.Full Answer >
Proteins are considered polymers because they are made up of monomers, and lipids are not considered polymers because they are not made up of monomers. In order for the basic unit that makes up the lipid or protein to be called a monomer, the unit must occur in repetitive chains, which lipids do not.Full Answer >
A contractile vacuole is an organelle in single-celled organisms that helps the cell remove wastes and excess water. It is found primarily in freshwater protists and algae. They are necessary because, in fresh water, the concentration of solutes inside a cell is greater than that outside the cell, so the cell constantly absorbs water through osmosis.Full Answer >
Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the person who discovered cilia and flagella in 1676. The discovery was sent to the Royal Society of London in a letter that described his findings as a second sort of animalcules whose figures were oval in shape with tiny legs.Full Answer >