Q:

How is ATP formed?

A:

Quick Answer

Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is formed via photosynthesis and cellular respiration. ATP is the high-energy carrying molecule that drives vital biological functions for an organism to survive.

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Full Answer

ATP is utilized by the cells in a variety of ways. It is mainly used in most animals for muscular contraction, protein synthesis and cognitive processes. Photosynthetic organisms, however, use ATP as a raw material to produce essential bio-molecules, such as glucose and oxygen.

Photosynthesis

Organisms that are capable of photosynthesis, including green plants and other autotrophs, create ATP from carbon dioxide, water and captured sunlight energy. This process involves two stages: light reactions and dark reactions. During the light reactions, the energy from the sun is converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP. Adenosine diphosphate, or ADP, undergoes photophosphorylation, where a phosphate group is added to it to form ATP molecules. Another product of the light reactions is NADPH. During the dark reactions, also referred to as the "Calvin cycle," the ATP and NADPH molecules are broken down to provide the energy required for the synthesis of glucose.

Cellular respiration

Animals rely on cellular respiration to produce usable energy. This set of metabolic pathways is driven by glucose, the primary organic product of photosynthesis. These pathways include glycolysis and aerobic respiration, further broken down into two: citric acid cycle and electron transport chain. Through a series of biochemical reactions coupled with enzymatic actions, glucose becomes completely oxidized at the end of cellular respiration to form 36 molecules of ATP.

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Related Questions

  • Q:

    What role does ATP play in photosynthesis?

    A:

    Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is an organic compound that provides energy for many different metabolic processes. In the chloroplasts, ATP is a product of the first stage of photosynthesis, and it provides energy for the second stage. After photosynthesis is over, this nucleotide powers metabolism for the entire plant cell.

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  • Q:

    What is responsible for making ATP?

    A:

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is created in organisms through the processes of photosynthesis, glycolysis, cellular respiration and fermentation. Photosynthesis and fermentation are restricted to plants and fungi, respectively, but glycolysis and respiration occur in both plant and animal cells.

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  • Q:

    What is a compound that provides energy for cells to do their work?

    A:

    Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is one of the most important energy-providing compounds used by cells to maintain their metabolism. Often described as the "energy currency" of a cell, ATP is a nucleotide comprised of three phosphate groups, the sugar ribose and adenine. ATP is found within cell fluid in concentrations that range between 0.5 to 2.5 milligrams per milliliter.

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  • Q:

    What is an ATP molecule composed of?

    A:

    ATP, or Adenosine triphosphate, is a molecule that carries energy and is composed of a base, which in this case is adenine, a ribose sugar and three phosphate groups. The three phosphate groups, which are the alpha, beta and gamma phosphates, are connected to the five-carbon ribose sugar.

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