Bacillus often show resistance to harsh environments such as heat, radiation, disinfectants and drying due to their endospores. According to MicrobiologyBytes, spores of Bacillus have a tough outer covering made of keratin, making them highly resistant to heat and chemicals.Know More
According to Cornell University's Department of Microbiology, the endospores of Bacillus give the organism the ability to thrive and grow in difficult environments such as deserts, hot springs, Arctic soils and marine sediments. Endospores are a dormant form of the bacterium and only a few genera of bacteria, such as Bacillus and Clostridium, are capable of forming endospores. Bacillus is found in the soil, while Clostridium can be found in the gastrointestinal tract of animals.
Endospores form under conditions of starvation. Cornell explains that a single endospore forms within a bacterium by a process called sporulation, which requires a great deal of time and energy from the bacterium. Once formed, multiple layers of resistant coats, such as a cortex, spore coat, and at times an exosporium, cover the completed endospore. Until a variety of environmental triggers encourage germination, the endospore survives and bides its time. Once encouraged to grow, an outgrowth of a single bacterium is produced from germination. The endospores of Bacillus are a highly effective adaptation in survival.Learn more in Biology
Heat fixation is a technique used in organism staining that is able to kill organisms, adhere them to the slides being used, and alter them so they can take on the stains being used. Fixing is a necessary step when performing a stain on a slide, explains Ohio State professor Stephen Abedon. Heat fixation is the most commonly used type of fixing for staining and studying organisms.Full Answer >
Moist heat sterilization is a technique that uses heated water and superheated steam to disinfect contaminated materials, such as culture media, surgical instruments, glassware and other non-thermally sensitive items. One form of moist heat sterilization is known as autoclaving, where the most effective standard conditions include a 15-minute exposure inside a vessel that is subjected to a pressure level of 15 pounds per square inch and a temperature of 250 degrees Fahrenheit.Full Answer >
Sweat releases heat and cools down the body through evaporative cooling. When sweat escapes through the skin, it carries some of the body's energy with it in the form of heat. Evaporation releases this energy, siphoning it away from the body and cooling the skin and blood vessels. This cools the blood passing through the circulatory system, reducing the body's core temperature.Full Answer >
According to Disinfected, there are three major types of disinfectants: alcohols, chlorine and aldehydes. Isopropyl alcohol and ethanol are examples of alcohols used to disinfect surfaces. Formaldehyde is the most commonly known example of an aldehyde disinfectant. Wikipedia states that disinfectants are applied to nonliving surfaces for antimicrobial purposes. They differ from antiseptics and antibiotics, which are used as antimicrobial agents for living beings.Full Answer >