Plants and animals are multi-cellular organisms composed of eukaryotic cells, while bacteria are single-cell prokaryotic organisms. Each eukaryotic cell of a plant or animal includes a central nucleus containing DNA and membrane-bound organelles, such as endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. A bacterial cell has no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles.Know More
The DNA of a eukaryotic cell is linear in structure and contained within the nucleus. Dr. David M. Rollins of the University of Maryland explains that prokaryotes have circular DNA, which is exposed to the cytosol fluid of the cellular environment and concentrates in an area known as the nucleoid. Within the cytosol environment of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes are ribosomes, which are responsible for producing the polypeptide chains of proteins. In bacterial cells, ribosomes are 70s, while eukaryotic plant and animal cells have larger, 80s ribosomes. These 80s ribosomes float within the cytosol of the cell and adhere to the rough endoplasmic reticulum unique to eukaryotes.
Interestingly, the mitochondria of eukaryotes do contain 70s ribosomes within their mitochondria. Dr. Rollins explains that mitochondria are the "power plants" for cellular energy within eukaryotes. Dr. Perry Carter of Midlands Technical College explains that based on this common 70s ribosomal characteristic, some scientists believe that millions of years ago, a prokaryotic bacterium invaded an early-form eukaryotic cell, which gave rise to mitochondria. Bacteria cells divide by way of binary fission and are asexual. Eukaryotes, however, divide cellularly via mitosis and reproduce sexually through the process of meiosis.Learn more about Biology
Animal cells do not have cell walls because they do not need them. Cell walls, which are found in plant cells, maintain cell shape, almost as if each cell has its own exoskeleton. This rigidity allows plants to stand upright without the need for bones or musculature.Full Answer >
Plant cells do have mitochondria. Mitochondria are capsule-shaped organelles that float freely around the cells and provide it with energy. The energy comes from the nutrients the cell takes in and burns for fuel.Full Answer >
Plant cells do not contain lysosomes. Lysosomes are present in the cells of animals, and they are responsible for breaking down waste and other cell debris.Full Answer >
Some examples of major animal phyla are: the Chordate, Arthropod, Mollusk, Annelid, Cnidarian and Echinoderm. Examples of major plant divisions include: the Anthocerotophyta, Magnoliophyta Coniferophyta, Pteridophyta, Bryophyta and Lycopodiophyta. Fairfax County Public Schools points out that, plants are classified into divisions instead of phyla.Full Answer >