Negative aspects of cloning include developmental complications, abnormal genes and low success rates. The possibility also exists that a human clone could be unable to fully integrate into familial and society roles.Know More
Cloning is largely unsuccessful because the process of somatic cell nuclear transfer is problematic. The overall success rate for a nucleus transfer is anywhere from 0.01 to 3 percent. There is also a high failure rate for pregnancies that stem from cloning. Another risk factor is the egg and nucleus not forming cohesively to complete the cloning process.
Animals that are cloned tend to be larger than their noncloned counterparts. This is known as Large Offspring Syndrome, and animals that suffer from it are prone to large organs, which causes breathing and bloodflow complications. Cloned animals also suffer from immune, brain and kidney problems.
There is also the probability that clones age faster due to an already worn transferred nucleus. Scientists are concerned that the chromosomes may have compromised properties that lead to enhanced aging. Experts warn about the developmental complications that can arise from this problem as well.
Many raise questions about the deformities that may occur in human cloning as well, and human cloning raises certain ethical questions. For instance, opponents contend that human clones would effectively have no self-determination because they would be expected to act like their genetic original.Learn more about Biology
Dangers associated with cloning include a chance of developmental issues arising later in life, a low success rate, which necessitates time-consuming and cost-intensive repeat cloning attempts, gene abnormalities and differences in chromosome lengths and patterns. Cloning occurs in many living organisms; some cloned species develop normally while others show abnormalities at birth or later in life.Full Answer >
Natural selection works by imposing different rates of success on genetically diverse organisms. Given a certain amount of hereditary variation amongst members of a population, some individuals naturally thrive, while others die young or fail to breed.Full Answer >
The combination of both rapid growth rates and clever adaptation mechanisms make antibiotic resistance an issue that can arise quickly. Antibiotic resistance is when infectious bacteria adapt and become immune to the harmful effects of administered drugs.Full Answer >
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by lowering activation rates. In general, the lower amount of activation energy that a potential reaction has, the faster the rate of reaction will be. Enzymes change shape during the reaction process, which allows them to efficiently reduce activation rates.Full Answer >