ADP is the abbreviation for adenosine 5'-diphosphate, a molecule involved in energy transfer within cells and with regulation of clot formation in the blood. It consists of an adenine ring, a ribose sugar and two phosphate groups.Know More
Adenosine 5'-diphosphate is formed when adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is hydrolyzed to form ADP plus a free phosphate group. This is a spontaneous or exergonic reaction which releases energy that the cell then uses to drive nonspontaneous reactions.
ADP also plays an important role in hemostasis, the normal process of blood coagulation to stop bleeding when an injury occurs. Platelets in the blood will stick to the walls of blood vessels when a vessel is injured. The platelets then release several chemicals — including ADP — to regulate the coagulation process. ADP causes additional platelets in the blood to change shape and stick aggressively to the growing clot, increasing its size and strength. ADP also induces fibrinogen fibers to stick to and reinforce the clot.Learn more in Cells
White blood cells have a nucleus, but red blood cells do not. White blood cells play protect the body from disease and infection.Full Answer >
White blood cells help to recognize when a foreign and potentially harmful pathogen enters the body, and they respond by releasing antibodies, such as lymphocytes and phagocytes, which attach to the pathogen and work to eradicate it. A high amount of white blood cells are found in the lymph nodes, which is why a symptom or sign of infection in the body can be evident by swollen lymph nodes.Full Answer >
Red blood cells do not have mitochondria. In fact, the cytoplasm of a mature, mammalian red blood cell has no organelles at all, not even a nucleus.Full Answer >
According to Arizona State University, Robert Hooke used the term "cells" in reference to small biological organisms because their structure reminded him of monks' rooms or "cells." The term stuck, and these organisms are still referred to as cells today.Full Answer >