Encyclopedia Britannica explains that a Bohr diagram for the stable ion is a diagram in which the nucleus is placed at the center and electrons orbit the nucleus according to discrete energy quanta. The stability problem for atomic diagrams was solved by Bohr by having electrons orbit in quantized shells.Know More
In the early 20th Century, experiments were conducted to determine the structure of the atom. Rutherford's experiments showed that the previous "plum pudding" model proposed by J. J. Thomson was incorrect. This experiment involved shooting alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of gold foil. If the plum pudding model were correct, these particles should have passed right through the sheet of gold foil. However, the alpha particles bounced back from the gold foil and showed that all of the positive charge of an atom must be condensed into a small nucleus at the center of the atom.
However, Rutherford's initial model was unstable if considered using only classical physics. In classical physics, the orbiting electrons would have to give off energy constantly. Eventually, the electrons would lose so much energy that they would crash into the nucleus. Instead, Bohr theorized that due to quantum effects, electrons could only have certain discrete energy levels and orbits.Learn more about Atoms & Molecules
The nucleus of an atom is the region found in the center of the atom. It consists of the protons and neutrons. The nucleus makes up the majority of an atom's mass; the other part making up the atom's mass is the outer electron clouds surrounding the nucleus.Full Answer >
Moving across periods on the periodic table from left to right, the atoms tend decrease in radius size because each atom has more protons than the atom before it, meaning there is more of an attractive force in the nucleus that pulls the electrons closer to the center. Even though there are both more protons and electrons, the attractive force of the protons wins out and makes the radius of the entire atom smaller.Full Answer >
The center of an atom is called the atom's nucleus. This structure is usually composed of protons and neutrons though some atoms of hydrogen have only protons.Full Answer >
The orbital diagram for phosphorus consists of five electrons in the third shell, eight in the second and two in the first shell, closest to the nucleus. The atomic number of phosphorus is 15. This number indicates the total number of electrons.Full Answer >