The human spinal cord is protected by the spinal column, which is made up of bones called vertebrae. Each vertebra consists of the spinous process, transverse process and body. The spinal cord passes through the vertebral foramen, the middle opening in the vertebrae.Know More
The spinal cord is a bundle of nerve fibers that transmits information between the brain and the peripheral nervous system. It is a conduit for motor information that travels down the spinal cord, a conduit for sensory information that travels up the spinal cord and a center to coordinate reflexes. The spinal cord consists of 31 segments that span approximately 43 centimeters in length in women and 45 centimeters in men. Two spinal nerves branch from each segment of the spinal cord.
Different spinal nerves perform different functions. Cranial spinal nerves transmit signals to the back of the head, neck, shoulders, arms, hands and diaphragm. The thoracic spinal nerves control the signals to the chest muscles and parts of the back and abdomen. Lumbar spinal nerves transmit signals to the lower parts of the abdomen, back and buttocks and parts of the leg. Finally, the sacral spinal nerves control the signals to the lower legs, thighs and feet.Learn more about Bones
A bone spur is a piece of bone that grows out from another bone, such as the heel bone or the vertebrae. Some bone spurs are asymptomatic and don't have to be treated. Other bone spurs, such as those that develop in Haglund's syndrome, are quite painful.Full Answer >
The vertebrae are classified as irregular bones. Due to their function in protecting the spinal cord while allowing a flexibility of movement, vertebrae have a distinctive shape that prohibits easy grouping within a regular type.Full Answer >
The human spinal column has seven vertebrae that together are known as the cervical spine. Starting at the base of the skull and moving down, the vertebrae are labeled as C1 through C7, with the C standing for cervical.Full Answer >
An adult human backbone has 24 vertebral bones, referred to as the presacral vertebrae. At birth, the human spine consists of 33 individual bones. Some portions interact and fuse when an individual reaches adulthood.Full Answer >