The human spinal cord is protected by the spinal column, which is made up of bones called vertebrae. Each vertebra consists of the spinous process, transverse process and body. The spinal cord passes through the vertebral foramen, the middle opening in the vertebrae.Know More
The spinal cord is a bundle of nerve fibers that transmits information between the brain and the peripheral nervous system. It is a conduit for motor information that travels down the spinal cord, a conduit for sensory information that travels up the spinal cord and a center to coordinate reflexes. The spinal cord consists of 31 segments that span approximately 43 centimeters in length in women and 45 centimeters in men. Two spinal nerves branch from each segment of the spinal cord.
Different spinal nerves perform different functions. Cranial spinal nerves transmit signals to the back of the head, neck, shoulders, arms, hands and diaphragm. The thoracic spinal nerves control the signals to the chest muscles and parts of the back and abdomen. Lumbar spinal nerves transmit signals to the lower parts of the abdomen, back and buttocks and parts of the leg. Finally, the sacral spinal nerves control the signals to the lower legs, thighs and feet.Learn more about Bones
The main component of bone that gives it strength is calcium phosphate. While calcium gives bones strength, collagen is the ingredient that gives bones flexibility. Bone cells replace damaged bone so that they stay strong and healthy.Full Answer >
The bony skeleton of the human body provides many vital functions essential to life, but one of the most noticeable is that without bones, an individual could no longer move his body. Muscles contract using bones as levers to move the legs, arms and other body parts.Full Answer >
The bones of the wrist are the trapezoid, trapezium, scaphoid, capitate, hamate, pisiform, triquetrum and lunate. These attach to the radius and ulna, which are the long bones in the arms. The wrist bones, their ligaments and other support structures allow various movements of the hands, including up-and-down and side-to-side rotation.Full Answer >
The thoracic cage or the rib cage protects both the heart and lungs. The thoracic cage is composed of 12 pairs of ribs, the sternum and 12 thoracic vertebrae.Full Answer >