The building blocks of protein are called amino acids. There are 20 different types of amino acids that the human body needs to function correctly. Eleven of these amino acids are produced naturally in the body, while the other nine need to be acquired by consuming food.Know More
The amino acids that are made from chemicals already found within the human body are called non-essential amino acids. Amino acids that cannot be made naturally are called essential amino acids. The digestive system breaks down consumed protein into their amino acids so they can enter the blood stream. Once in the bloodstream, cells utilize the amino acids as building blocks to create various proteins.
While the majority of crops that are grown for human consumption contain some essential amino acids, soy products and animal sources of protein contain all the essential amino acids; these products include: eggs, milk, meat, poultry, fish and other seafood.
The proteins that are created from amino acids handle incredibly important life functions. Some proteins contribute to the structural elements of a cell, while others are used to bind cells into tissues. Proteins take the form of antibodies to protect from diseases and interferon to fight off viruses. If the human body does not acquire enough essential amino acids from food consumption to create the necessary proteins, the body is susceptible to many shortcomings. Potential problems from lack of amino acids includes: a weakened immune system, a decrease in hormone production and the breakdown of muscle tissues.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
DNA's building blocks are called nucleotides. Nucleotides are made up of a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base and one phosphate. The nitrogenous base can be adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine, which are often shown on DNA models as the letters A, C, G and T.Full Answer >
Codon usage bias is the tendency of some organisms to use certain DNA triplets in preference to other, equally capable, triplets in building amino acids. Many of the 20 amino acids used by life can be built by different sequences of DNA; it isn't clear why some sequences are preferred.Full Answer >
Chromatin is a strand of DNA wrapped around a protein, and is a building block of all chromosomes. The chromosome is the structure in which DNA is stored in cells.Full Answer >
Protein synthesis is the process of converting the DNA sequence to a sequence of amino acids to form a specific protein. It involves three main steps: transcription of mRNA from the DNA sequence, initiation of the translation of the mRNA sequence to an amino acid sequence and elongation of the protein chain as the mRNA codes for additional amino acids to be added to the growing chain.Full Answer >