Carbon is small and has four valence electrons; these factors combine into a unique structure that allows it to easily make a chain of carbon atoms. It creates covalent bonds — the strongest bonds between atoms.Know More
A covalent bond is one where atoms share electrons to form a bond. This type of bond is stronger than an ionic bond where electrons are donated to another atom. Valence electrons are carried by an atom in the outer shell, which can be shared with another atom.
Because of carbon's four valence electrons, it can even bond with itself two or three times. These bonds are all covalent bonds, creating a strong chain of atoms. Because each bond has eight valence electrons, it also fulfills the octet rule, which establishes that a molecule containing certain elements (such as carbon or nitrogen) is more stable if it has eight valence electrons.
Similarly, carbon also bonds well with other atoms. In fact, scientists know of at least 10 million compounds that include carbon, according to the Jefferson Lab. The study of these compounds is what is known as organic chemistry. In fact, carbon is the element found with the most frequency in living things on Earth, which is why scientists say life is carbon based. Carbon is essential for life on Earth.Learn More
Carbon dioxide is a compound made up of the elements carbon and oxygen. Its chemical formula is CO2, which specifies that one molecule of CO2 contains one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms.Full Answer >
The Bohr model of a silicon atom includes notations for 14 protons and 14 neutrons in the nucleus plus designations for three concentric circles for electrons. The inner circle contains two electrons, the middle circles have eight electrons and there are four valence electrons on the outer circle. Electrons appear as small dots on the Bohr model.Full Answer >
Iron has two valence electrons. The atomic number or iron is 26, and it has 26 electrons and 26 protons. The electron configuration of iron is 1s22s22p63s23p63d64s2 or 2, 8, 14, 2 electrons per shell, so an atom of iron has two electrons in the outermost shell.Full Answer >
Lithium iodide is an ionic compound in which there is one lithium ion for every iodide ion. It has the chemical formula LiI. Lithium iodide is also sometimes called lithium(I) iodide.Full Answer >