Chemical weathering is the process by which a material breaks down into its component elements through the action of a chemical agent. This type of weathering requires precise temperature conditions and the presence of a chemically-laden fluid. Substances capable of causing chemical weathering include water and acids.Know More
There are three types of chemical weathering: oxidation, dissolution and hydrolysis. Oxidation is the formation of rust on iron caused by prolonged contact with water. Dissolution involves acidic water and porous minerals, such as limestone and other soft minerals. This type of chemical weathering frequently occurs on gravestones, stone statues and building blocks made from porous rocks. The third type of chemical weathering is called hydrolysis. Like dissolution, hydrolysis involves the interaction of acidic water and minerals.
Several secondary factors also promote chemical weathering. Minerals with small particle sizes are much more susceptible to this type of weathering as compared to those with large particles. The ambient climate and the passage of time also influence the scope and extent of chemical weathering. Natural organisms, such as bacteria, algae and fungi, are important catalysts in this type of weathering. Those that produce acid as a digestive by-product have a particularly large impact on the process.Learn more about Geology
Sand is composed of all kinds of rocks and minerals, so its chemical properties greatly vary. Most sand is made of quartz, which is largely silicon oxide. Physically, sand is made up of tiny, loose grains of rocks or minerals that are larger than silt but smaller than gravel.Full Answer >
Metamorphic rock is formed underground through a process that changes a rock's molecular structure due to pressure, heat and chemical reactions. A metamorphic rock forms from a parent rock called a protolith. Depending on conditions, a protolith can transform into any metamorphic rock. Because protoliths are capable of undergoing vast changes, identifying them is sometimes difficult for geologists.Full Answer >
There is no definitive evidence to fully explain the formation of mica as the process is still under scientific study as of 2015. However, mica formation is said to be closely associated with the lack of orthoclase feldspar in pegmatites, which is where the mineral is predominantly found.Full Answer >
Lithification is the process by which sediment turns into hardened rock. There are three ways in which lithification can occur. These processes are called compaction, recrystallization and cementation.Full Answer >