Caves are most commonly formed by the process of erosion. Caves may also be formed by the waves, lava flows or by bacteria that produce acid.Know More
The majority of caves are formed in what is called karst, which is an area made of dolomite or limestone that has underground streams and sinkholes. Rainwater that has combined with carbon dioxide while still in the atmosphere falls and seeps through cracks. With the help of more carbon dioxide, it creates an acid that is weak but capable of eating away at the rocks over time. After millions of years, this acid hollows out areas that eventually join to form a cave.
Caves that form along the ocean shore are called sea caves. These caves are formed by the waves hitting the cliffs and eroding the soft rock over time.
Lava tubes are caves that are formed when a lava flow cools along the outer edges faster than in the middle. This forms a crust around the flow of lava, which hardens and creates a cave.
Certain bacteria feed off of oil deposits and produce a gas which forms a strong acid when it mixes with oxygen. This acid erodes rocks and creates caves that require special equipment including a supply of oxygen to visit.Learn more in Landforms
A strait is either formed by tectonic shifts or land that has subsided or been eroded. If a strait is created by people rather than geological forces, it is generally referred to as a canal.Full Answer >
According to NationalGeographic.com, bays are formed through various ways, such as plate tectonics, overflowing of the ocean to a coastline and the slicing of a glacier through a bedrock. Bays are bodies of water partially surrounded by land, and they are typically less enclosed and smaller than a gulf.Full Answer >
Islands form in several ways. The most common events that lead to island formation are volcanic activity and continental drift. Islands also form due to erosion, buildup of sediment and coral that grows enough to penetrate the surface of the water.Full Answer >
The Center for Earth and Environmental Science describes that floodplains are formed as rivers erode their own banks. Floodplains are the flat lands that lie adjacent to a river; they encompass the area that floods when the river's water level rises. As the river flows, it washes material downstream. When a flood occurs, this material is resuspended in the water and added to the floodplain.Full Answer >