The cell membrane is comprised of phospholipids and proteins. The phospholipids are oriented so that their hydrophilic, polar heads face outwards and their hydrophobic, non-polar tails face inwards toward the middle of the cell. Proteins dot the cell membrane to allow solutes to be transported in and out of the cell membrane.
The cell membrane is a biological membrane that separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment. It is selectively permeable and allows ions and small polar molecules through via passive diffusion. Large molecules such as proteins must be transported into the cell via transmembrane or carrier proteins that are embedded in the membrane. Cell membranes also allow water to pass through them via osmosis. Cell membranes are flexible and allow the cell to be fluid and to maintain their volume as they change shapes. They are also involved in a variety of cellular functions. These include cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signaling. Cell membranes can also be very diverse. In eukaryotes, they are single-layered and follow the fluid mosaic model. In prokaryotes, the cell membrane is surrounded by an outer membrane. The cell membrane and outer membrane are separated by a periplasmic space. However, some prokaryotes have no cell membrane at all.Learn More
Skin regenerates by filling the gap between the sides of the cut with newly generated skin cells, starting with the dermis (bottom-most layer of the skin) and working its way up. Very shallow cuts are followed by easy regeneration, as only the stratum basale layer (the deepest layer of skin) of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin) is needed to generate enough cells to repair the damage.Full Answer >
Some bacteria manufacture and absorb their own food, while others must consume substances like living organisms or decaying material through their cell walls. Bacteria break down food in a process called respiration, which for some strains of bacteria requires oxygen to complete.Full Answer >
The rod shaped structures in the nucleus of a cell are chromosomes. They carry genetic material in a "rod" of DNA that is bonded to various proteins in the cell nucleus.Full Answer >
RNA, or ribonucleic acid, has ribose as its sugar. Ribose has five carbon atoms and is called a pentose sugar. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, also contains a pentose sugar, deoxyribose, but its sugar has one less carbon atom than ribose.Full Answer >