Brooklyn College explains that cells are small because they must have a large surface area relative to the amount of volume they contain to function properly. As a sphere grows larger, its volume increases much more rapidly than its surface area does. This presents logistical problems for the cell, as it tries to transport resources and products through a large volume without the resources available via a large surface.
As an example, a typical animal cell requires oxygen to survive. The size of the cell partially dictates the amount of oxygen it needs, while the surface area of the cell limits the amount of oxygen that can be absorbed at a time. Accordingly, when the size of a cell grows, its demand for oxygen and other resources rises at a rapid rate, while its capacity for absorbing oxygen increases more slowly. At some point, the size of the cell will cause the cell to divide or die, according to Brooklyn College.
Despite the limitations on cell size that are imposed by the surface-to-volume ratio, a 2013 study published in the journal Nature Cell Biology demonstrates that gravity also limits cell size. While gravity is a negligible force at very small scales, cells that attain about 1 millimeter in diameter must include structural elements to keep some organelles stable under the influence of gravity. Without such elements, cell components can lose their structural integrity.Learn More
The stage of cellular transportation at which the most ATP is produced is during the electron transport chain. This stage produces a total of 32 ATP molecules for every glucose, according to the Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis Department of Biology.Full Answer >
A bacterial infection within the middle ear is the most common cause of fluid in mastoid cells, according to WebMD. Mastoiditis occurs when too much fluid is found in mastoid air cells, which are honeycomb-like structures filled with air that drain into the middle ear. When the middle ear becomes infected, the inflammation may pass into the mastoid cells, causing fluid buildup in the mastoid bone.Full Answer >
The Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast. Carbon dioxide enters the stroma of the chloroplast to combine with the five-carbon compound called ribulose1, 5-Biphosphate to form two molecules of a three-carbon compound called 3-Phosphoglyceric acid. This reaction is catalyzed by an enzyme called Ribulose bi-phosphate Carboxylase.Full Answer >
The nucleus of plant and animal cells contains chromosomes. A chromosome consists of protein and one molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is responsible for passing along specific traits from one living organism to another.Full Answer >