Eukaryotic cells all feature a nucleus, and their organelles are enclosed inside membranes. They also have a plasma membrane, which is a layer of phospholipids that surrounds the whole cell, and they feature an internal cytoskeleton.
In comparison to prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells are at least 10 times larger. Their cytoplasm is composed of both ribosomes and cystol. Protected by their plasma membrane, they also have protections for each organelle in the form of individual membranes. The plasma membrane is the site for signaling and transport functions for the entire cell.
Within eukaryotic cells, the endomembrane system is a network of membranes sharing materials. The lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus are all part of this larger system. Eukaryotic cells also have an extracellular matrix made up of glycoproteins and proteins that other cells have secreted. This matrix sits around many different animal cells.
Eukaryotic cells move by the function of flagella or cilia, depending on the type of eukaryote. Flagella are tails at one end of the cell that whip to and fro, propelling the cell in one direction. Cilia are shorter and more numerous, and they all beat in concert to drive the cell in one particular direction.Learn More
The major energy carrier molecule in cells is adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Adenosine triphosphate is a nucleoside triphosphate that stores all of the energy inside of cells.Full Answer >
Photoconductive cells alter the resistance of an electrical circuit in relation to the amount of light hitting the cell. This is why photoconductive cells are sometimes called photoresistive devices. Photoconductive cells are frequently used in applications such as street lamps, which come on as the ambient light levels drop below a certain threshold.Full Answer >
The nuclear envelope controls the flow of information into and out of the nucleus. It is a porous double membrane that allows the free passage of water, ATP and other small molecules. It regulates the passage of macromolecules, which are much larger, and these are the molecules that carry information.Full Answer >
In a phospholipid bilayer, the polar head of each layer points outwards, while the long nonpolar lipid chains of each layer points towards the middle. A phospholipid bilayer membrane is a specific type of lipid bilayer where all the polar heads contain a phosphate group.Full Answer >