Vertebrates are characterized by the presence of a vertebra or backbone; a skull; skeletal bones that form an endoskeleton; a bilaterally symmetrical structure; and two pairs of appendages, such as fins, limbs or wings. Vertebrates' organ systems are more developed than those of invertebrates, and their nervous systems are more complex.Know More
Vertebrates are categorized into five groups: mammals, birds, fishes, amphibians and reptiles. They comprise around three percent of more than 1 million animal species.
A vertebrate's central nervous system is composed of a well-developed brain, found in the skull, and a spinal cord encased by the vertebral column. Vertebrates have both axial and appendicular skeletons that combine to make a highly developed internal skeleton. They possess a closed circulatory system, meaning that their blood always flows in blood vessels, and their respiratory system is located close to the throat. Their bodies are separated into ventral and spinal areas, and their skins are covered with protective outgrowths, such as hairs, feathers or scales. Vertebrates' sense organs are also well developed.
Vertebrates thrive in various types of environments. Mammals live in forests, bodies of water and underground. Most birds are capable of flying and are found in forests, near the shore and in open fields. Amphibians primarily live on land but also visit the water for to lay eggs and reproduce. Because fish have gills, they cannot breathe air and can only survive in water.Learn more about Biology
Animals that have an internal skeleton made up of bones are classified as vertebrates. Some examples of animals that fall into the category of vertebrates are humans, bears, frogs and birds.Full Answer >
The muscular systems of humans and frogs share a number of anatomic and biochemical similarities, including the same basic muscle groups, a similar muscle fiber structure and the presence of acetylcholine-based neuromuscular junctions. The myosin and actin protein family present in muscles is also well-conserved between human and frogs.Full Answer >
The class Mammalia has three unique characteristics: hair, milk production in the mammary glands and three bones in the middle ear. Characteristics shared by other classes of animals include a warm-blooded metabolism, four-chambered heart and four limbs. Members of class Mammalia are called mammals.Full Answer >
The phylum mollusca is characterized more by diversity than uniformity, though modern molluscs do all tend to share certain features, including the presence of a radula (a tonguelike ribbon of teeth), the structure of the nervous system and the presence of the mantle, which contains the animal's internal organs. Other than these few common characteristics, molluscs can be widely different and, according to the University of California, Berkeley, the phylum mollusca is one of the most diverse phylums known to man. Even the radula is not a completely uniform characteristic; though most members of the phylum mollusca have one, the bivalvia class does not.Full Answer >