Q:

How are chemical bonds made and broken?

A:

Quick Answer

Chemical bonds are formed when unstable, reactive atoms seek out stable configurations through sharing, donating or receiving valence electrons from other atoms. Bonds are broken down when a specific amount of energy known as the bond energy is applied to the bond.

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Full Answer

The bond energy required to break down a bond is dependent on the type of bond. The stronger the bond, the greater amount of energy needed to destroy it. Because covalent bonds are strong, bonds do not spontaneously break down in nature without the application of bond energy. The bond energy can come from different energy sources, such as heat. Endothermic reactions are chemical reactions where heat is absorbed to apply the bond energy necessary to destroy the bond and change the compounds.

Chemical bonds do form spontaneously because atoms are naturally unstable and reactive. The type of bond they form depends on their electronegativity. Smaller differences in electronegativity result in covalent bonds and greater differences result in ionic bonds. The attraction and intermolecular forces of the bonds determine their strength and bond energy. Because chemical bonding involves the transfer of energy, such as atoms donating and receiving valence electrons in ionic bonds, it results in exothermic reactions, or reactions that give off heat energy.

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Related Questions

  • Q:

    How do covalent bonds form?

    A:

    Covalent bonds form when atoms share their valence electrons with other atoms to become a more stable molecule. Atoms share their electrons in order to completely fill up their outer-most layer — the valence shell. Two atoms that are covalently bonded have less energy than the individual atoms, making the bonded atoms more stable.

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  • Q:

    What is trivalent chromium?

    A:

    Trivalent chromium, or chromium (III), is chromium in its +3 oxidation state, which means that it has a charge of +3 and can form up to three different bonds with other atoms. Trivalent chromium is present in many different compounds, including anhydrous chromium (III) chloride, which appears as a purple compound.

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  • Q:

    Why do atoms form bonds?

    A:

    Atoms form bonds with other atoms because of the electrostatic attraction between positively-charged protons and negatively-charged electrons. When this force of attraction brings atoms together to form substances containing two or more atoms, the bond is called a chemical bond. There are many types of chemical bonds, but the three major, or primary, types are ionic, covalent and metallic.

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  • Q:

    How do you draw the Lewis Dot Structure of HF?

    A:

    The Lewis dot structure for HF, hydrofluoric acid, is drawn by representing the bonds between each atom and showing all of the valence electrons in the structure. The Lewis dot structure takes a few moments to draw and requires basic knowledge of chemistry.

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