A chromosome is made up of DNA primarily according to the National Institutes of Health. It is tightly coiled around histones, which are proteins. The histones support the structure of the chromosome.
Chromosomes are primarily composed of DNA, yet they are tightly wrapped up in a coil pattern around proteins that are known as histones. These components provide the structure of a chromosome. It is not possible to see chromosomes with the naked eye. In fact, the majority of what has been learned about chromosomes has come from looking at them under the lens of a microscope as the cell undergoes division. They have two arms that are linked around a central location, which is called a centromere. The "q arm" is the long arm, and the "p arm" is the shorter arm of the chromosome.Learn More
DNA sequencing is a technique used to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides in a DNA sample. Electrophoresis, a method for separating DNA fragments, is used when the DNA differs in length by only one base. DNA samples are placed in a gel and exposed to an electric field.Full Answer >
The human genome is a representation of the complete sequence of genetic instructions that comprises the DNA of humans. Humans have 23 chromosomes that contain approximately three billion base pairs arranged in a particular order, giving the human species traits unique from other species.Full Answer >
Enzyme specificity refers to the tendency for enzymes to catalyze a specific set of chemical reactions. As explained by the Worthington Biochemical Corporation, some enzymes are absolutely specific and only catalyze one chemical reaction. Other enzymes exhibit group specificity and only act on molecules with given functional groups, such as amino groups. Linkage specific enzymes act on particular bonds, while stereochemical specific enzymes operate on steric or optical isomers.Full Answer >
The University of Illinois at Chicago explains that DNA must replicate itself so that during cell division, both daughter cells receive the same genetic information. DNA replication is necessary during the process by which somatic cells divide, called mitosis, as well as during meiosis, the process by which organisms produce gametes, or sex cells.Full Answer >