Chromosomes exchange genetic information in the form of genes during the process of meiosis. This process creates both egg and sperm cells in females and males, respectively. During meiosis, crossing over occurs between the chromosomes to exchange genetic information and create unique eggs and sperm.Know More
Meiosis is a process in which egg and sperm cells duplicate to create new egg and sperm cells. The process is broken into meiosis I and meiosis II. During both meiosis I and meiosis II crossing over, or recombination, occurs between the chromosomes. Homologous chromosome exchange DNA through the formation of a chiasma. This structure physically bind the chromosomes together so that their DNA is close to each other.
Genes can then switch from one chromosome to another and complete the process of recombination. This process occurs during both meiosis I and meiosis II to form four unique daughter cells. Each of the daughter cells that are produced during the entire process of meiosis are haploid, meaning they only contain half of the number of chromosomes they need to produce a viable organism. They start out as diploid cells, but during meiosis II the daughter cells undergo reduction division to reduce the number of chromosomes each cell possesses. Then, when the egg and sperm cell meet, the resulting zygote gains a full set of chromosomes.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
Chromosomes are important because they contain DNA, the biochemical substance required for the molecular-level cellular messages known as gene expression. The DNA contained in chromosomes carries the instructions required for the functioning and development of all living organisms. In this respect, the chromosomes and the DNA contained within them serve as a means of storing biological information.Full Answer >
The chromosomes and genes contained within DNA are replicated during the S phase of the interphase cell cycle. DNA replication occurs within the nucleus of eukaryotes and in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes. DNA replication occurs in all living organisms.Full Answer >
Genetic splicing is the process in which an organism's DNA is cut and another gene is added. It is used so single-celled organisms can produce certain products, such as insulin, and produces genetically altered organisms.Full Answer >
Genetic manipulation, also called genetic engineering, refers to the alteration of the genes of an organism. It involves manually adding new DNA to an organism to add new traits. Examples of genetically engineered organisms include plants that are resistant to certain insects, plants that tolerate herbicides and crops with altered oil content.Full Answer >