The main difference between crystalline solids and amorphous solids is that crystalline substances have characteristic geometry while amorphous solids do not. In other words, crystalline solids have a definite and orderly shape and amorphous solids do not.
While crystalline solids have a sharp melting point, amorphous solids are softened and melted over an unspecific range of temperatures. For example, glass is gradually softened and melted without undergoing an abrupt change to the liquid state. During the process of crystallization, amorphous solids experience a smooth cooling curve with a continuous drop in temperature. When crystalline substances undergo the crystallization process, they experience two breaks in their cooling curve. The two breaks indicate a period of a constant temperature instead of a continuous decrease in temperature.
The structure of a crystalline solid is much more rigid than the structure of an amorphous solid. Amorphous solids are irregularly broken while crystalline solids cleave along definite planes.
Another difference between these two types of solids is crystalline solids are anisotrophic and amorphous solids are isotrophic. Isotrophic means the solid's properties are independent of the direction in which they are being measured. Anisotrophic means the solid's properties are in different directions. Cellophane is an example of an amorphous solid. Copper is a common crystalline solid.Learn More
Amorphous solids include glass, plastic, gels and thin films. An amorphous solid is one of two types of solid, the other type being crystalline. An amorphous solid has no repeated pattern of orientations and positions of its constituent atoms and the bonds between them.Full Answer >
Two properties of amorphous solids include the arrangement of constituent particles and their isotropic nature. In amorphous solids, the particles are arranged in a regular manner only in a small area. This is known as short-range order.Full Answer >
Decantation and filtration differ in the manner through which the methods separate substances in a mixture. In decantation, the separation of two substances, either of a solid and liquid or two immiscible liquids, occurs by allowing the mixture to settle and separate.Full Answer >
Most solids, liquids and gases expand when they are heated because the molecules that make up the substance move more rapidly, which puts more distance between each of the molecules. This property of matter hold true irrespective of the state of matter in most cases. There are exceptions to this general rule; water, for example, expands when it transitions from liquid to solid form.Full Answer >