Crystallization separates a solid dissolved in a liquid that has formed a solution. To crystallize the solid, the solution is heated in an open container to allow the liquid to evaporate, leaving the crystalline solid behind.Know More
Crystallization can be naturally or artificially induced. In addition to crystals that precipitate from a liquid solution, crystallization can also occur in a molten liquid that is cooled or a gas that is deposited on a surface. Crystallization occurs in two major steps: nucleation and crystal growth.
During the nucleation phase, the solvent molecules dispersed in the solution are attracted to one another, forming nanometer-sized clusters. Halting the process at this stage and stabilizing the nanoclusters is a commonly used technique in the synthesis of nanoparticles. Leaving the process to continue yields stable nuclei that persist without dissolving back into the solution. The critical size that these nuclei need to reach to become stable depends on system conditions such as the solution temperature and solvent concentration.
The crystal growth stage involves the subsequent attraction of additional solvent molecules to the nuclei that have previously succeeded in achieving critical size. This process continues so long as the solution is supersaturated: having more solvent dissolved than it can sustain at these particular conditions.
Although it is a solid at room temperature, the metallic element sodium is not found in its pure state naturally. A highly reactive element, sodium is found in the Earths crust and oceans combined with other elements as a compound.Full Answer >
At room temperature, potassium is a solid. This alkali metal melts at 146.08 degrees Fahrenheit, or 63.38 degrees Celsius, and boils at 1,398 degrees Fahrenheit, which is 759 degrees Celsius.Full Answer >
The normal phase of phosphorus at room temperature is that of a solid. Phosphorus is a nonmetallic chemical that has an atomic number of 15 and the chemical symbol P on the periodic table. While its melting point is 317.3 degrees Kelvin, its boiling point is 553.7 degrees Kelvin.Full Answer >
When a solid is heated, the molecules that make up the solid begin to vibrate. This causes them to take up more space, and the solid matter expands. If the heat continues to build, it may provide enough energy for the particles to break free from their strong attraction to one another, causing the solid to melt.Full Answer >