Crystallization separates a solid dissolved in a liquid that has formed a solution. To crystallize the solid, the solution is heated in an open container to allow the liquid to evaporate, leaving the crystalline solid behind.Know More
Crystallization can be naturally or artificially induced. In addition to crystals that precipitate from a liquid solution, crystallization can also occur in a molten liquid that is cooled or a gas that is deposited on a surface. Crystallization occurs in two major steps: nucleation and crystal growth.
During the nucleation phase, the solvent molecules dispersed in the solution are attracted to one another, forming nanometer-sized clusters. Halting the process at this stage and stabilizing the nanoclusters is a commonly used technique in the synthesis of nanoparticles. Leaving the process to continue yields stable nuclei that persist without dissolving back into the solution. The critical size that these nuclei need to reach to become stable depends on system conditions such as the solution temperature and solvent concentration.
The crystal growth stage involves the subsequent attraction of additional solvent molecules to the nuclei that have previously succeeded in achieving critical size. This process continues so long as the solution is supersaturated: having more solvent dissolved than it can sustain at these particular conditions.Learn more about Chemistry
A supernatant liquid occurs in the chemical process of precipitation, and it is typically a clear liquid free of precipitate located above the solid during settling. A supernatant is considered a deposit, and the term itself is from the Latin word "supernatant," meaning to float from.Full Answer >
At room temperature, beryllium is a solid. Beryllium is an alkaline earth metal that is very lightweight and has a melting point of 1,287 degrees Celsius. Its chemical symbol is "Be," and it has four protons.Full Answer >
At room temperature, carbon is a solid. Carbon is a non-metal that has the atomic number of 6. Its atomic weight is 12.01 grams per mole. Carbon has a high melting point of 6,422 degrees Fahrenheit. This element’s name comes from the Greek word “carbo” that stands for charcoal.Full Answer >
An example of solidification is when cooking oil changes to solid after exposure to cold temperatures. Solidification, also referred to as freezing, is the process by which liquids or fluids change to solids.Full Answer >