Hemoglobin is a complex protein molecule made up of four subunits of polypeptides, or globins, which are chains of amino acids. These globin subunits bind to non-ptorein heme groups containing an iron ion, which can bind to oxygen. These iron ions are in turn enclosed in rings called porphyrins.Know More
Because hemoglobin contains iron, it's considered a metalloprotein. Four nitrogen atoms in the porphyin ring work with the iron ion. When the iron ion binds with oxygen, it becomes a deeper red color.
Hemoglobin has two proteins that allow it to carry and release oxygen. In adults, they are alpha globin and beta globin, but during pregnancy, gamma globin operates instead of beta globin in the fetal hemoglobin.
When red blood cells enter the alveoli, the hemoglobin within them combines with oxygen to form oxyhemoglobin. As the blood cells circulate through the rest of the body, the hemoglobin gives up the oxygen to the tissues. The globin part of hemoglobin takes up carbon dioxide, a waste material, and releases it back in the alveoli. Hemoglobin can carry oxygen and carbondioxide simultaneously.
Red blood cells are made up almost entirely of hemoglobin, but hemoglobin is also found in neurons, alveoli and white blood cells called macrophages.Learn more about Blood
InnovateUs states that the main function of hemoglobin is transporting oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body. It is an important chemical in red blood cells that carries oxygen, and performs different effect modulation and gas transport duties.Full Answer >
An article in the journal Tropical Medicine & International Health notes that the normal rule for hematocrit count is three times the hemoglobin count. The hematocrit value is a percentage, while hemoglobin count is in grams per deciliter. However, using this conversion factor can lead to inaccuracies in diagnosing anemia, especially in children, according to a study published in Tropical Medicine & International Health.Full Answer >
A vein consists of three main layers connected by muscles and elastic connective tissue, according to the National Cancer Institute. Walls of veins are thinner because veins have lower blood pressure.Full Answer >
Arteries have three main layers or tunics known as the adventitia (outer), media (middle) and intima (inner). The outer layer is made of connective tissue with collagen fibers, the middle layer consists of smooth muscle and elastic fibers, and the innermost layer is composed of specialized squamous cells supported by the basement membrane of connective tissue.Full Answer >