Detergents contain surfactants and enzymes that pull dirt and oil away from fabrics, according to About.com Chemistry. The molecular structure of a surfactant is such that one part of the molecule is magnetized to grease and dirt, while the other side of the molecule is magnetized to water. When surfactants are agitated in the wash cycle, they form a molecular bond with dirt, pulling it out of material.Know More
Modern detergents contain a variety of surfactants, so they work in different ways. For example, oxidizers use the oxygen molecule in water to produce a chemical reaction and whiten material. Detergents include water softeners, as many surfactants are more effective in soft water, which has a lower mineral content. Additional enzymes also draw fats and oils out of material. The enzymes protease and lipase are attracted to protein and fats. Amylase works on starches that are present in dirt. Enzymes use a molecular process to dissolve fats, proteins and starches so that surfactants can more effectively attach to these cells.
Detergents work on hard surfaces in the same way. These high-powered ingredients work together to isolate dirt and grease. Rinsing is the final step when using detergents. Whether these molecules are rinsed in a washing machine or on a hard surface, they adhere to clean water and are easily removed.Learn more about Solutions & Mixtures
Diffusion is the result of the random thermal movement of molecules, and it involves molecules spreading from regions of high concentration into regions of low concentration. The three types of diffusion are simple, channel and facilitated diffusion. The factors that influence the diffusion rate include the concentration gradient, molecule size, distance the molecule must travel, molecule solubility, temperature and surface area of the membrane.Full Answer >
According to Mental Floss, the luminescence inside glow sticks comes from a chemical reaction between two substances that releases energy as light. The exact chemical makeup of a glow stick can vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, but most use hydrogen peroxide and a chemical called a diphenyl oxalate ester. When the two liquids mix inside the glow stick, they produce a light colored by a phosphorescent dye.Full Answer >
Self-rising flour is flour mixed with baking powder and salt, so it does not require additional leavening agents, but it is not suitable as a replacement for a rising agent in other recipes. Self-rising flour offers a convenient pre-mixed ingredient for quick breads and other baked goods that do not use yeast as a leavening agent.Full Answer >
The Proactiv system works well for people who have mild cases of acne; however, a prescription medication gives better results to those who suffer from moderate and severe acne, reports About.com. Proactiv, like most over-the-counter acne treatments, is not powerful enough to clear up severe acne.Full Answer >