According to National Geographic, Sir Isaac Newton is famous for developing the laws of gravity. However, his discoveries and inventions include a wide range of scientific and mathematical principles and objects.

Sir Isaac Newton's most famous discovery concerns gravitational theory. His Law of Universal Gravitation states that all particles in the universe exert gravitational force. He contended that the same forces that make an apple fall from a tree also make the moon stay in orbit through its relationship with the Earth.

Newton also discovered that white light is a combination of all colors of the rainbow. This discovery led to his development of the reflecting telescope that used mirrors in addition to glass lenses. With that, all colors could focus on a single point and produce clearer, more accurate images of viewed objects. Astronomers and space agencies still use reflecting telescopes today.

Newton also conceived the three laws of motion which include Newton's Law of Inertia which explains that objects stay at rest or in motion unless acted upon. Secondly, he developed Newton's Law of Acceleration which states that force equals mass times acceleration. Thirdly, Newton's Law of Action and Reaction says that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Newton possessed an affinity for mathematics, especially calculus, and developed differentiation and integration with German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz.