The difference between anaphase 1 and anaphase 2 is the separation of different types of chromosomes. In Anaphase 1 of mitosis, the homologous (same) chromosomes separate to either side of the cell, and the centromere is whole. In Anaphase 2, the sister chromatids separate, and the centromere is split, which causes the chromatids to separate.Know More
In anaphase 1, the homologous chromosomes move to the opposite poles, and the sister chromatids remain attached. There are other changes: the kinetochore microtubules (spindles) shorten to pull the chromosomes towards the poles. This forms two haploid sets meaning that each set has 23 chromosomes or 46 total, the number typically found in humans. Each chromosome has two chromatids which move separately in anaphase 2.
In anaphase 2, the centromeres are cleaved down the middle allowing microtubules to attach to the kinetochores which pulls the sister chromatids apart. The centromeres are the center part of the sister chromatids that hold them together, often represented by a dot or a circle. When this is broken, the two separate. The sister chromatids are now called sister chromosomes as they move toward opposing poles and are no longer together. By this time, the cell is almost ready to completely separate into daughter cells, resulting in four overall daughter cells by the end of meiosis 2.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
An organism's genotype is the entire set of genes that it carries in its genome, and its phenotype is the observable effect of those genes on the body and behavior of the organism. Biologists draw a distinction between genotypes and phenotypes to clarify the difference between an organism's genetic heritage and the effects that its combination of genes has.Full Answer >
Chromatin and chromosomes are both structures of DNA, but chromosomes are condensed chromatin. DNA exists as chromatin a majority of the time so that the DNA is accessible to proteins for transcription and proteins can be made during the process of translation. Chromatin is condensed into chromosomes during mitosis to ensure that replicated genetic information is divided equally between the two resulting daughter cells.Full Answer >
Genes are distinct portions of an organism’s DNA that correspond with a specific trait, while alleles are different versions of a given gene. All alleles are genes, but not all genes occur as multiple alleles.Full Answer >
The difference between myosin and actin is that, where myosin uses cellular energy to move along the actin, the actin is the passive partner in the process. Myosin and actin are the protein types responsible for muscle movement, as well as movement in many other types of cells. Because they have such a widespread role, myosin and actin are crucial proteins for many forms of life.Full Answer >