The difference between anaphase 1 and anaphase 2 is the separation of different types of chromosomes. In Anaphase 1 of mitosis, the homologous (same) chromosomes separate to either side of the cell, and the centromere is whole. In Anaphase 2, the sister chromatids separate, and the centromere is split, which causes the chromatids to separate.Know More
In anaphase 1, the homologous chromosomes move to the opposite poles, and the sister chromatids remain attached. There are other changes: the kinetochore microtubules (spindles) shorten to pull the chromosomes towards the poles. This forms two haploid sets meaning that each set has 23 chromosomes or 46 total, the number typically found in humans. Each chromosome has two chromatids which move separately in anaphase 2.
In anaphase 2, the centromeres are cleaved down the middle allowing microtubules to attach to the kinetochores which pulls the sister chromatids apart. The centromeres are the center part of the sister chromatids that hold them together, often represented by a dot or a circle. When this is broken, the two separate. The sister chromatids are now called sister chromosomes as they move toward opposing poles and are no longer together. By this time, the cell is almost ready to completely separate into daughter cells, resulting in four overall daughter cells by the end of meiosis 2.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
An intron is a nucleotide sequence found within the genes and is removed via RNA splicing when a mature RNA molecule is being generated; on the other hand, an exon is a nucleic acid sequence present in a mature messenger RNA molecule. Basically, introns are DNA bases found in between exons while exons can be described as DNA bases which are translated to mRNA.Full Answer >
A mutagen is something that causes changes in the DNA, while a carcinogen is something that causes cancer. A mutagen can be a chemical or a phenomenon such as ultraviolet radiation. Overexposure to UV radiation has been linked to skin cancer.Full Answer >
Genes are distinct portions of an organism’s DNA that correspond with a specific trait, while alleles are different versions of a given gene. All alleles are genes, but not all genes occur as multiple alleles.Full Answer >
Genes are individual segments of DNA and chromosomes are structures which contain many genes packed together. Each chromosome contains one DNA molecule and each DNA molecule contains several genes or individual strands.Full Answer >