According to The Geological Society, compaction occurs when sediments are buried underneath other layers causing them to stick together due to pressure. On the other hand, cementation occurs when new minerals act as binding agents that bind the sediments together. The main difference between the two processes is that compaction brings the sediments together, and cementation binds the sediment grains together.Know More
Compaction and cementation are prominent processes in lithification, the process of turning new, sandy sediment into hard rock formations. Lithification works to remove the air and water in the open spaces of loose, new sediment. As the process begins, both compaction and cementation work to reduce the porous space in sediment and bind the sediments together.
Compaction forces the sediments together to eliminate the open spaces within each sediment. As the sediment grains come into contact with one another, they become buried further down due to the overlying pressure.
During this process, the open pores not reduced by compaction are filled during cementation. Cementation fills the open pores with various minerals such as calcite, clay, silica and iron oxides. These minerals bind the grains together to form solid rock formations.
Not all of the pores need to be filled within these first stages of lithification because the rock can still be changed over time. Lithification is completed during the diagenesis stage.Learn More
Hurricane Andrew began as a tropical wave that crossed the west coast of Africa into the tropical North Atlantic on August 14, 1992. Two days later, after it passed just south of the Cape Verde islands, the wave became a tropical depression. Tropical Storm Andrew formed August 17 and became a hurricane three days later due to vertical wind shear. The hurricane caused 23 deaths in the United States.Full Answer >
Basalt is crushed and used to pave roads. It is also used to provide ballast for railroads and as a building stone. It is used in sculpture and to make basalt fiber and rock wool. Basalt can also be cut into flags and polished and used as flooring material.Full Answer >
According to About.com, agate forms from the deposition of silica in aqueous solution at low water depths and relatively low temperatures. It is a form of chalcedony mineral, which is a mass of quartz composed of microscopic crystals. Its porous nature, relative to other forms of quartz, allows it to develop impurities that give it a variety of colors and patterns, making it a popular stone for use in jewelry.Full Answer >
Marble is a metamorphic rock formed from limestone. Changes in the limestone's chemical properties due to external forces can result in the creation of marble.Full Answer >