In chemistry, the term "hydrate" refers to a substance that contains water, while an anhydrous substance contains no water. Hydrates and anhydrates differ greatly in their reactions to water and their common uses.
In organic chemistry, a hydrate is formed by the addition of hydrogen to another molecule to form a compound. Examples of organic hydrates are chloral hydrate, created from the reaction of hydrogen with chloral, and ethanol, formed when hydrogen is added to ethylene. In inorganic chemistry, the hydrate compound is formed when the compound contains water of crystallization. This happens when the hydrogen molecules have crystallized within the metal complex of the original molecule, or are bound to its metal center without changing the structure of the molecule.
By contrast, an anydrate or anhydrous material does not contain any water molecules. The water is usually removed by suction or by heating the substance to a high temperature. Anhydrous materials are typically used as drying agents because they absorb water from their surroundings. One example is a silica gel packet often included inside clothing pockets or other consumer goods to keep the surrounding area dry and mold-free. Many common anhydrates are quite dangerous to handle. Anhydrous ammonia, for example, is a pungent gas used as a fertilizer. The pungent fumes from this gas can suffocate a human and are extremely flammable. If ingested, it can cause quick dehydration.Learn More
The multiplier effect, or synergistic effect, of alcohol refers to the combination of the effect of alcohol with one or more drugs that is greater than the sum of the individual effects of each substance, according to the University of Notre Dame. One example from the Getting Them Sober Foundation shows that one joint of marijuana combined with alcohol seems like 10 beers instead of one beer.Full Answer >
In chemistry, accuracy refers to the closeness of a value to its true value - its standard or known value. For example, if an experiment yields a product whose value is 5.6 grams and the true value should be 14.2 grams, then this experiment is not very accurate.Full Answer >
Ethanol is a substance that is created from the fermentation of food crops in factories, while methanol is a highly poisonous chemical produced synthetically. Both substances are variants of alcohol that can be used as energy sources, but have different methods of production and practical uses.Full Answer >
When discussing solutions, the solute is the substance which dissolves, while the solvent is the substance into which the solute dissolves. Creating a salt water solution involves dissolving salt in water, making salt the solute and water the solvent. However, determining which is the solute or solvent is not always so simple, and some rules exist for determining which substance dissolves in the other.Full Answer >