Free chlorine is a component of total residual chlorine, the portion of dissolved chlorine gas that is not bonded to any other reactants in water. The other portion is known as combined chlorine, which has bonded with chemicals, typically nitrates, in the water. These are terms used by water treatment professionals examining the safety of drinking water.
Chlorine is introduced to water supplies because of its ability to alter pollutants and kill harmful bacteria and other pathogens. The amount of contaminants in the water, whether they are metals or organic substances, determines the chlorine demand of the water. This is the amount of free chlorine that is consumed by reactions in the water. This reacted chlorine becomes combined chlorine, while any excess remains free chlorine. In perfectly clean water, chlorine demand is zero.
In certain cases, combined chlorine is introduced to the water or left in it as a disinfecting agent itself, preventing the growth of algae, aiding in the coagulation of organic substances and reducing odor. In either case, both free chlorine and combined chlorine are part of total residual chlorine. Small amounts of residual chlorine of both types are frequently left in the water sent out for residential and commercial use, as this helps keep the lines disinfected as well.Learn More
The chemical formula for chlorine gas is Cl2. Its molar mass is 70.906 grams per mole. It exists as a yellow-green gas at standard temperature and pressure, and its density is 3.2 grams per liter. Its melting point is -150.7 degrees Fahrenheit, and its boiling point is -29.27 degrees Fahrenheit.Full Answer >
There are 55.346 moles in 1 liter of pure water. This is calculated by dividing the density of water, which is 997.07 grams per liter, by the molecular mass of water, which is 18.02 grams per mole.Full Answer >
Static balance refers to the ability of a stationary object to balance. It happens when the object’s center of gravity is on the axis of rotation. Dynamic balance, on the other hand, is the ability of an object to balance while in motion or switching between positions. In humans, both types of balance are necessary to ensure an active lifestyle.Full Answer >
The formula for measuring potential difference is V=W/Q and this formula is known as Ohm's law. In this equation, V is equal to the potential difference, W is the energy transferred or work done and Q is the amount of the charge. Potential difference can also be measured using the formula V=IR, where I is the current charge and R is the resistance.Full Answer >