Necrosis and apoptosis are differentiated by their causes, with necrosis being the accidental result of interactions with pathogens and apoptosis being the product of a programmed cell mechanism. These are the two major types of cell death in living, multicellular organisms. Despite this customary dichotomy, research indicates that the distinction between these two types of cell death are not as clear as was once thought.Know More
Necrosis results from the release of toxins from pathogens or other trauma to cells, sufficient to cause cell death. In general this cell death is not a purposeful effect of the pathogen. It is a side effect of its digestive processes. Somewhat confusingly, patches of dead tissue are identified as necroses, even when the cause of the cell death is unknown.
Apoptosis is a vital and regular part of overall organism function and is the programmed death of cells via the cells' own chemical processes. This occurs throughout the body and is necessary to make way for replacement cells as the old ones wear out. It also occurs in response to certain pathogens, particularly viruses, as a cell which destroys itself does not propagate the virus. Apoptosis begins with the destruction of the interior structures of the cell, often followed by a rupture of the membrane and absorption of its constituents by nearby cells. Sometimes, however, as in the outermost layers of the skin, the dead cells do not rupture but stay in place and continue to serve a function after death.Learn more in Cells
The primary differences between chloroplasts and mitochondria are that chloroplasts contain pigment molecules and thylakoid molecules, while mitochondria have respiratory enzymes that chloroplasts lack. Mitochondria appear in cytoplasm for cells that contain a nucleus, converting nutrients into fuel molecules for cells. Chloroplasts, on the other hand, are the portions of algae and plant cells in which photosynthesis occurs.Full Answer >
One main difference between protists and bacteria is that protists are eukaryotic organisms, while bacteria are prokaryotes. Another difference is that protists belong to the kingdom Protista, while bacteria are members of the Monera kingdom. Bacteria are uni-cellular organisms that do not contain organelles like a nucleus or chloroplasts.Full Answer >
Cellulose and amylose are both important organic molecules produced by plants, but cellulose is mainly used to serve a structural role. Amylose is used to store sugar that is produced via photosynthesis.Full Answer >
The steps of meiosis are the same for both males and females, but the end result is different because the female produces an egg, while the male produces sperm. The process is also named differently in the sexes. The stage of meiosis in a female is called oogenesis, and in a male it is called spermatogenesis.Full Answer >