DNA has a negative charge due to the negative charge of its phosphate component. The other two components of DNA consist of a 5-carbon sugar and a nitrogen base.Know More
The phosphate are found in the ribose-phosphate backbone of DNA. Phosphate links the sugars, called deoxyribose and from which DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid gets its name, to make up the backbone of each strand of DNA. Each sugar is linked to the next by a phosphate group.
RNA, made up of ribose rather than deoxyribose, or both sugars, is similarly negatively charged. The difference between the two sugars is that deoxyribose is missing one of the hydroxyl groups.
The negative charge of both DNA and RNA is used to separate them along with proteins from compounds using a test called gel electrophoresis. The test involves introducing the test material into a gel medium with a positive charge at one end and a negative charge at the other. Because of their negative charge, DNA and RNA will move towards the positive phase. DNA molecules can be separated out according to their size. The molecules will move through the gel at speeds corresponding to their size; the smallest will move fastest.The electrophoresis results will show banded areas and those that moved the farthest are the smallest DNA molecules.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
DNA replication is a process whereby a single DNA molecule produces two identical copies. Each side of the DNA’s double-helix structure extends in the opposite direction, allowing it to split down the middle. Once split, each side serves as a template for a new strand. In the case of prokaryotic cells, the process occurs in the cytoplasm, whereas in eukaryotic cells, the replication occurs in the nucleus.Full Answer >
DNA ligase is an enzyme that creates phosphodiester bonds to join complementary DNA strands. It occurs naturally in the body. Scientists use DNA ligase to engineer recombinant DNA.Full Answer >
DNA translation is the process by which a protein is made using an RNA template. This process follows DNA transcription, the process in which the DNA molecule is used to construct the messenger RNA molecule.Full Answer >
Both DNA and RNA are macromolecules that consist of long chains of nucleotides. Both contain the specific nucleotide bases adenine, guanine and cytosine, although the fourth base differs between DNA and RNA. Both molecules are found in the cell's nucleus, but RNA may also be found in the cytoplasm.Full Answer >