North Dakota State University defines a DNA probe as a small piece of nucleic acid (typically single-stranded DNA) that is used to detect complementary stretches of DNA. DNA probes used in hybridization experiments are labeled so that they can be visualized.Know More
As Wikipedia explains, DNA probes are typically labeled with either radioactive or fluorescent bases. It is more common to use fluorescent DNA probes because a variety of different fluorescent wavelengths can be chosen, which allows scientists to hybridize more than one probe to a given sample at a time.
According to "Human Molecular Genetics," DNA probes can be used for a variety of different molecular biology techniques. When used with a Southern or northern blot, DNA probes can be used to detect size fragments of a gene or other segment of DNA in question.
DNA probes can also be used for fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques, in which chromosomes are denatured on microscope slides. This method allows for the detection of larger chromosomal aberrations, including broken or fused chromosomes. Chromosome painting techniques utilize in situ hybridization to paint metaphase chromosomes different colors, which makes chromosome mapping easier. This technique can also be used to detect chromosome sequences that have been conserved between different species.Learn more in Molecular Biology & DNA
DNA gyrase is a bacterial enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent negative supercoiling of double-stranded, closed-circular DNA, according to the Critical Review of Biochemical and Molecular Biology. Also referred to as topoisomerases, gyrase is a member of a category of enzymes that control the topological transitions of DNA.Full Answer >
When DNA is denatured, the hydrogen bonds that hold the double helix together break apart, separating the DNA molecule into two single strands. Denaturation occurs as the temperature increases, according to Ian VanLare, Professor of Biology at Tusculum College.Full Answer >
DNA replication is a process whereby a single DNA molecule produces two identical copies. Each side of the DNA’s double-helix structure extends in the opposite direction, allowing it to split down the middle. Once split, each side serves as a template for a new strand. In the case of prokaryotic cells, the process occurs in the cytoplasm, whereas in eukaryotic cells, the replication occurs in the nucleus.Full Answer >
Deoxyribonucleic acid was first isolated in 1869 by Friedrich Miescher. DNA is a molecule composed of long protein nucleotide chains. Each nucleotide is further composed of the nucleic acids adenine, guanine, cytosine or thymine. Between these nucleic acids, adenine pairs with thymine, and cytosine pairs with guanine.Full Answer >