According to The Tech Museum of Innovation, DNA is soluble in water because the sugar and phosphate molecules that make up the DNA backbone are hydrophilic. DNA bases are hydrophobic but are protected from the water by the DNA backbones of the two DNA strands.Know More
In order for a molecule to be soluble in water, it needs to be a polar molecule or have a charge. H2O is a bent molecule with the oxygen located in the middle. Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, so it attracts the electrons more strongly, resulting in a partial charge difference between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms. These charge differences cause the hydrogen and oxygen of different water molecules to be transiently attracted to one another in hydrogen bonds.
Polar molecules have atoms that are able to form hydrogen bonds, typically hydroxyl (-OH) or carbonyl (C=O) groups. The DNA backbone consists of alternating ribose (sugar) and phosphate molecules. Phosphate is negatively charged, which is why DNA macromolecules are predominately negative. Ribose has multiple hydroxyl groups that are able to form hydrogen bonds with water.
Interestingly, the twist in double-stranded DNA is caused by the bases of DNA being hydrophobic while the backbones are hydrophilic. The twist compresses the bases closer together and prevents water from getting into the middle of the molecule.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
Adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine are the four chemical bases found in DNA. In a given DNA molecule, adenine always pairs with thymine, and guanine always pairs with cytosine.Full Answer >
Two components make the backbone in DNA, being the deoxy-ribose and phosphate molecules. These molecules link together in a staggered pattern where the deoxy-ribose and phosphate molecules follow one another, like the backbone of a zipper. Deoxy-ribose is a type of sugar molecule where the adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine molecules attach a covalent bond. The phosphate molecules bond with the deoxy-ribose molecule acting like anchors in DNA.Full Answer >
The two purines in DNA are adenine and guanine. Within the structure of DNA, purines are paired with complementary pyrimidine bases, forming base pairs that are bonded by hydrogen bonds. These two purines are also found in RNA.Full Answer >
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a chain that is made up of smaller parts known as nucleotides. These nucleotides are then made up of three different parts of nucleotides: the sugar group, the phosphate group and a group of four different nitrogen bases, which are adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T).Full Answer >