According to The Tech Museum of Innovation, DNA is soluble in water because the sugar and phosphate molecules that make up the DNA backbone are hydrophilic. DNA bases are hydrophobic but are protected from the water by the DNA backbones of the two DNA strands.Know More
In order for a molecule to be soluble in water, it needs to be a polar molecule or have a charge. H2O is a bent molecule with the oxygen located in the middle. Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, so it attracts the electrons more strongly, resulting in a partial charge difference between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms. These charge differences cause the hydrogen and oxygen of different water molecules to be transiently attracted to one another in hydrogen bonds.
Polar molecules have atoms that are able to form hydrogen bonds, typically hydroxyl (-OH) or carbonyl (C=O) groups. The DNA backbone consists of alternating ribose (sugar) and phosphate molecules. Phosphate is negatively charged, which is why DNA macromolecules are predominately negative. Ribose has multiple hydroxyl groups that are able to form hydrogen bonds with water.
Interestingly, the twist in double-stranded DNA is caused by the bases of DNA being hydrophobic while the backbones are hydrophilic. The twist compresses the bases closer together and prevents water from getting into the middle of the molecule.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
DNA is a long molecule composed of two chains of smaller molecules called nucleotides, each which contain a region of nitrogen called the nitrogenous base, a carbon-based sugar molecule called deoxyribose and a region of phosphorus called the phosphate group. There are four types of nitrogenous bases: adenine (abbreviated as A), thymine (abbreviated as T), guanine (abbreviated as G) and cytosine (abbreviated as C).Full Answer >
DNA and RNA are somewhat similar organic molecules, both involved in the storage and transfer of genetic information. According to About.com, DNA’s primary function is to store genetic information over the long term, while RNA’s primary function is to transfer this information to the ribosomes, where proteins are made. Because they perform different functions, they have different structures, chemistry and characteristics.Full Answer >
Mitochondrial DNA is DNA that is present inside the mitochondria of a cell. Mitochondrial DNA is not part of the DNA found in cellular chromosomes.Full Answer >
Supercoiled DNA is a length of DNA that has been subjected to a twisting stress that has distorted its normal shape. As the twisted ladder of the double helix is twisted beyond its normal state, the torsion forces the DNA molecule to deform to relieve the stress.Full Answer >