DNA stores information in a sequence of adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine on a backbone of two deoxyribose molecules, which intertwine in a double helix. In nature, this information is read by RNA molecules and turned into proteins.Know More
It is possible to encode digital data used by humans into synthetic DNA and read it back out. Because the four bases of this synthetic DNA are directly mapped to bit sequences used by humans, this is a relatively straightforward process.
However, in a complex living organism, reading the information in DNA is much more complicated. DNA is read by messenger RNA, or mRNA, which is used by translation RNA, or tRNA, to create the amino acids and proteins on which life depends. This process is largely understood, and the sequences of DNA that are responsible for which amino acids are also known. However, the part of the DNA that is used to create RNA and ultimately proteins depends on what the cell is and its immediate environmental conditions. Determining the physical result of these proteins, such as the creation and development of organs, requires complex analysis and observation. Accordingly, translating raw genetic code into an organism's physical form and attributes without actually creating the organism in question is extremely difficult.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
Nitrogenous bases are the class of biological molecule to which guanine, adenine, cytosine and thymine belong. These nitrogenous bases combine with a five-carbon sugar and a phosphate group to form nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.Full Answer >
The four types of nucleotides found in DNA are guanine, cytosine, adenine and thymine. These are nitrogenous bases and are subdivided into purines and pyrimidines. The purines are adenine and guanine, and the pyrimidines are cytosine and thymine.Full Answer >
In the rules of DNA base pairing, cytosine always pairs with guanine, and adenine always pairs with thymine. The complementary shape between the two bases that form a pair allows for them to form hydrogen bonds.Full Answer >
The complementary base pairing rule states that in DNA, adenine always pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine. This rule ensures that DNA is replicated faithfully and mutations are minimal occurrences.Full Answer >