Effector organs are smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands that respond to nerve impulses from the central nervous system without conscious thought. They are part of the automatic, or involuntary, nervous system, along with receptors, afferent nerves and efferent nerves.
The digestive system, the heart, the lungs and the diaphragm are examples of effector organs. A living being does not have to use conscious thought to breathe, to digest food or to make its heart beat. Reflex arcs also make use of effectors. A reflex arc is the rapid and involuntary response to specific stimuli, such as the contraction of skeletal muscle to remove a hand from a hot surface.
The activation of effector organs is a relatively complex process. Sensory receptors react to a stimulus, or a change in the internal or external environment, and transform the stimulus into an electronic signal. This signal passes to a sensory neuron, which acts as an intermediary, bridging the gap between the sensory receptors, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, to the central nervous system. The sensory neuron transmits the signal to the central nervous system, where it undergoes processing. The central nervous system then sends a message, as a nerve impulse, to the corresponding motor neurons, which carry the impulse to the effector organ, which finally translates the nerve impulse into a response or movement.Learn More
The stomach is the primary organ that breaks down food as it enters the digestive system. This organ receives food from the esophagus and eventually directs the partially digested food into the small intestine. It also helps kill harmful bacteria.Full Answer >
The human heart contains many intricate elements. The primary structures of the heart include the right and left atria, the right and left ventricles, the aorta, the pulmonary arteries, and both the atrioventricular and semilunar valves. These structures operate via electrical signals from the brain that allow the heart to distribute blood throughout the body.Full Answer >
The heart is a single organ, but it functions as a double pump sending oxygen-depleted blood to the lungs to pick-up oxygen and unload carbon dioxide, while simultaneously sending oxygen-loaded blood coming from the lungs to cells throughout the body. The heart's right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs, while the left ventricle pumps the oxygenated blood to the body cells. The left ventricle is the stronger of the two and performs the more demanding part of the double-pump work.Full Answer >
The main function of the heart is to pump blood to the lungs to be saturated with oxygen, and then pump it out into the body to supply the cells with oxygen. The heart, along with the blood vessels, make up the cardiovascular system.Full Answer >