Electrons become excited when they absorb energy. In an atom, electrons prefer to stay in the orbitals closest to protons, known as the ground state. When given energy, electrons move to a higher energy level, known as an excited state.
In the Bohr model of an atom, neutrons and protons are located in the nucleus, with the electrons orbiting around. Electrons are negatively charged particles and protons are positively charged particles. Therefore, electrons and protons attract each other, causing electrons to fill the orbitals closest to the nucleus first. Electrons move into higher orbitals when giving energy, but shortly after, will move back to the ground state by emitting a proton. An example of an electron in an excited state is the electron of the hydrogen atom when it is in the n=2 orbital. When in the n=1 orbital, it is in the ground state.Learn More
Metals form positive ions, or cations. According to the octet rule, because metals have relatively few electrons in their outermost energy levels, they tend to lose these electrons to form compounds with other elements. The loss of electrons gives metals a positive charge.Full Answer >
The chemical equation Zn + Pb(NO3)2 refers to solid zinc added to a solution of lead nitrate, which produces solid lead and a solution of zinc nitrate. The balanced equation is Zn + Pb(NO3)2 -> Pb + Zn(NO3)2.Full Answer >
The smallest atom in the periodic table in terms of mass is hydrogen, which has only one proton and one electron. Hydrogen has no neutrons. The element has an atomic number of 1 and atomic weight of 1.00794, making it the smallest of all the elements.Full Answer >
Elements from the lanthanide series are used for petroleum production, lasers, magnets, projectors, X-ray screens and as a component of steel and magnesium alloys. The lanthanides are soft, highly reactive metals that burn easily and act as strong reducing agents.Full Answer >