Hydrogen, carbon and oxygen commonly form covalent bonds. There are two forms of covalent bonds, polar and nonpolar, depending upon whether atoms share electrons equally.Know More
Atoms are stable when their outer shell of electrons is full. If the shell is not full, atoms react with other atoms to gain, donate or share electrons. Covalent bonds are a sharing of electrons; an even sharing of electrons results in a nonpolar covalent bond. Nonpolar bonds mostly exist between atoms of the same element. For example, oxygen contains six electrons in its outer shell. To gain a full outer shell of eight electrons, oxygen atoms form double bonds with other oxygen atoms. Because they are identical atoms, they share the four electrons equally.
When atoms of two different elements share electrons, they form polar covalent bonds. In polar covalent bonds, the shared electrons spend more of their time near one atom than the other, resulting in an uneven sharing and a partial charge on both atoms in the bond. Water is an example of a polar covalent bond. In water, oxygen shares electrons with two hydrogen atoms. However, the oxygen has more pull on the shared electrons, giving it a partial negative charge and leaving each hydrogen with a partial positive charge.Learn more about Chemistry
Common examples of non-polar covalent bonds include the bonds between two identical non-metallic elements, such as those that occur between two iodine atoms and two oxygen atoms. Non-polar covalent bonds also occur between different types of atoms, such as those between carbon and hydrogen in the synthesis of organic compounds.Full Answer >
Nitrogen can form up to four covalent bonds, most commonly seen in ammonium. Ammonium is a positive ion, which isn't as stable as ammonia, which has only three covalent bonds.Full Answer >
Covalent bonds form when atoms share their valence electrons with other atoms to become a more stable molecule. Atoms share their electrons in order to completely fill up their outer-most layer — the valence shell. Two atoms that are covalently bonded have less energy than the individual atoms, making the bonded atoms more stable.Full Answer >
Fluorine forms one bond. Fluorine has five electrons in its p orbitals. By gaining one more electron, it fills the p orbitals and becomes stable. Therefore, it only forms one bond.Full Answer >