Hydrogen, carbon and oxygen commonly form covalent bonds. There are two forms of covalent bonds, polar and nonpolar, depending upon whether atoms share electrons equally.Know More
Atoms are stable when their outer shell of electrons is full. If the shell is not full, atoms react with other atoms to gain, donate or share electrons. Covalent bonds are a sharing of electrons; an even sharing of electrons results in a nonpolar covalent bond. Nonpolar bonds mostly exist between atoms of the same element. For example, oxygen contains six electrons in its outer shell. To gain a full outer shell of eight electrons, oxygen atoms form double bonds with other oxygen atoms. Because they are identical atoms, they share the four electrons equally.
When atoms of two different elements share electrons, they form polar covalent bonds. In polar covalent bonds, the shared electrons spend more of their time near one atom than the other, resulting in an uneven sharing and a partial charge on both atoms in the bond. Water is an example of a polar covalent bond. In water, oxygen shares electrons with two hydrogen atoms. However, the oxygen has more pull on the shared electrons, giving it a partial negative charge and leaving each hydrogen with a partial positive charge.Learn more about Chemistry
Sodium, hydrogen, oxygen and carbon are the elements found in baking soda. Baking soda is known chemically as sodium bicarbonate, which has the molecular formula NaHCO3.Full Answer >
Mentos makes soda fizz due to the Mentos breaking the bonds in water molecules and encouraging the growth of more carbon dioxide gas, which is used to carbonate sodas. This is due to a combination of a rough surface area, the density of Mentos candies and their coating.Full Answer >
Most inorganic compounds do not contain carbon; however, in those inorganic substances that do contain carbon, carbon-hydrogen bonds are absent. Organic compounds always contain carbon and almost all have carbon-hydrogen bonds, according to About.comFull Answer >
Stainless steel is available in many different alloys that incorporate several different elements, but the essential components are iron, carbon and chromium. Low-carbon steel with at least 12-percent chromium forms an even layer of protective oxide on its surface and is, therefore, stainless.Full Answer >