The elements that make up paper are cellulose from tree wood and various chemicals that give different types of paper their special properties. Hemp, bamboo, flax and cotton are also used, but 95 percent of the raw elements come from trees, according to the National Center for Families Learning.Know More
The trees are ground into chips and then boiled to remove lignin, a substance that holds together the cellulose monomers responsible for the structural support of the trees. The cellulose is then made into liquid paper pulp, dried and shipped to be made into paper.
The different chemicals that are then added give the final paper its unique qualities. Sodium aluminate is used in combination with alum to control pH. Silicate of magnesia is used to give paper a greasy or soapy feel and enables paper to take a high finish. Barium sulfate, cadmium sulfide, calcium sulfite and lead chromate are all used as pigments.
Guar gum is used as a dry strength additive, sodium peroxide is used for bleaching and titanium dioxide is used to increase opacity and brightness. There are many other chemicals used in the process, but these few are examples of the wide variety available for the paper-making process.Learn more about Chemistry
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are all elements that make up lipids. Lipids are one of the four major groups of organic molecules. The other three are carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acid (DNA). One of the key characteristics of lipids is that they do not dissolve in water.Full Answer >
Coated, uncoated, specialty and oriental are all different types of paper. There are many different types of paper for both commercial printing and artistic purposes.Full Answer >
Cellulose and starch are two similar polymers, but the main difference between them is humans can eat starch but are not able to digest cellulose. Humans have enzymes that break down starch into glucose that the body uses as fuel, but the body has no enzymes that break down cellulose.Full Answer >
Proteins contain hundreds to thousands of individual amino acids that are linked together in a chain and then folded into a complex shape. Each protein structure is made up of approximately 21 different amino acids in different combinations.Full Answer >