According to the second law of thermodynamics, energy flows in the direction of increasing randomness. This randomness is quantified as entropy, a universal value that always increases due to the inescapable dissipation of energy.Know More
Each time energy is transferred or transformed in an open system, some of this energy is lost in the form of random thermal vibrations called heat. Starting with a fixed amount of useful energy, the total amount of energy available to do work decreases until eventually all of this energy has dissipated as heat. Even if this resulting heat energy is trapped in a system, there is no way to restore it to its former form of useful energy without expending more than the original amount of energy.
As a result, energy always flows from more complex forms to less complex ones and from more concentrated forms to less concentrated ones. The flow of thermal energy from a higher temperature to a lower one or the flow of electrical energy from a higher voltage potential to a lower one are both illustrations of this. Even chemical reactions are subject to this law of thermodynamics, in which the total bond energy of the reactants of a spontaneous reaction is always less than the bond energy of the products.Learn more about Thermodynamics
Pyroclastic flows travel away from a volcano's vent at speeds up to 150 kilometers per hour. They contain hot gas, ash and rock at temperatures ranging from 100 to 800 degrees Celsius.Full Answer >
The factor that is necessary for the flow of heat from one object to another is that the two objects must have different temperatures. Heat always "flows," or moves, from the hotter object to the cooler one, unless there is some sort of external agent doing work.Full Answer >
The sun is the primary source of radiant energy on Earth, according to Explorit Science Center. Radiant energy is a type of electromagnetic radiation. Upon leaving the sun, this energy reaches Earth - a distance of almost 93 million miles - in just eight minutes, because all electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of light, which is 186,000 miles per second.Full Answer >
The formula for calculating thermal energy is Q = mcΔT, where "Q" represents the thermal energy, "m" indicates the substance's mass, "c" denotes the specific heat and "ΔT" signifies the temperature difference. Thermal energy is typically measured in Joules, commonly abbreviated as "J."Full Answer >